North America: Human Geography (2023)

North America, the third largestcontinent, extends from the tiny Aleutian Islands in the northwest to theIsthmusfrom Panama in the south.

North Americaphysical geography,Surroundingseresources, zhuman geographycan be considered separately.

North America and South America are named after the ItalianBrowserAmerica Vespucci. Vespucci was the first European to point out that America was not part of theEast Indies, but an entirely separate landmass. The portions of the landmass that extended north of the Isthmus of Panama became known as North America.

Today North America is home to theCitizensCanada, United States, Greenland, Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the island states and territories of the Caribbean Sea and western North Atlantic.

The human landscape of North America accurately reflects that of their physical environment: varied, rich, and ever-changing. From their beginnings to the present day, the peoples of North America have worked with and against their environment to survive and survivethrive.

historical cultures

IndigenousCultures have shaped and were shaped byGeographyfrom North America. It is believed that the first Americans had thismigratedfrom Siberia, in Northeast Asia, crossing acountry bridgeacross the Bering Strait. These populations spread south to what is now Florida and California, as well as Mexico and Central America.

The Olmec and Maya, native peoples of Central America, built the continent's first cities, leading to the large urban areas of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. These cities in present-day central Mexico boastedchallenging mechanical engineeringstructures, likechannels, apartment buildings etcirrigationsystems.

Many of these early North American cultures were scientifically and agriculturally advanced. Mayan Calendar &Almanacherecordedheavenlyevents likewindoweseasonalchanges. The Mayans were also mathematically advanced. His counting system was able to represent very large numbers using only three symbols: dots, lines, and a football-shaped symbol that represented zero. The Maya were actually the first culture to have a written symbol for zero.

Crops in southern North America harvested corn, squash, and beans in regular cycles. This kind ofAgriculturebetter allowedcivilizationsdevelop. People no longer needed to produce food and shelter for their families - some people could work in the food and construction industries, while others became engineers, artists, and political leaders. Major North American civilizations include the Maya and Aztecs of modern-day Mexico and the Iroquois of southeastern Canada and northeastern United States.

The vastness of the northern part of the continent encouraged other indigenous communities to livenomadiclifestyles. These cultures did not establish urban areas or agricultural centers. Instead, they followed favorablyweather conditions, natural agricultural cycles and animal migrations.

The Plains Indians, for example, followed the Americans' seasonal grazing and migration.buffalo(Bison Bison). The Plains Indians include the Lakota, Blackfoot, and Nez Perce. Plains Indians ate and used bison meat as their primary food sourceHiddenand bones to make housing, tools, and clothing. The bison's range, which extended from the southprairie provincesfrom Canada, throughgreat plans, on the US-Mexico border, coincided with the expansion of the Plains Indian communities. They were so interdependent that the eventual extinction of bison in many areas of the United States - byoverhunt,Developmentand anti-indigenousBundPolitics - Drastically weakened the power and influence of the Plains people.

The environment has also influenced the traditional beliefs and social structure of Native American communities. For example, the Inuit native to the Arctic were heavily influenced by theNorthern Lights, or Aurora Borealis. They believed the amazing plays of light to be images of their family and friends in the afterlife, the souls of animals and spirits, and visual guides for the hunt. The Inuit also believed that all things have a soul and that spirits exist to protect those souls. By respecting theecosystem(the living and non-living things in an environment), the Inuit communities aimed to maintain a balanced existence.

(Video) North America Human Geography Notes

ContemporaryThe culture

Today's North American societies are also heavily influenced by the continent's rich and diverse environment. Our globalized world has pressured these societies to develop complex ways to interact with and benefit from geographic resources.

The economic base of North America is largely focused on extraction, development andErsatzvonnatural resources. Local as well as national communitiesgovernmentsand regional organizations also use natural resources. Guatemala, for example, has a traditional medicine system that includes the followingherboristasand spiritualists who use medicinal plants for treatmentDiseases. Costa Rica has developed a network ofMesseCoffee farmers who have adapted to a growing international market.

Tourism is also an important part of North America.Business, especially for small island states in the Caribbean Sea. These island nations offer pristine tropical environments. Its colorful coral reefs are one of the top diving destinations in the world. The islands' political and economic ties to the United States and Europe ease travel arrangements and language barriers. The islands receive around 20 million visitors each year. In 2010, tourism contributed more than $39 billion to the region's economy.

Some organizations promote tourism that is most beneficial to the local economy and ecosystems. The Caribbean Alliance forsustainable tourism, aims, for example, to promote the sustainable management of the region's natural resources. Sustainable tourism supports local business development in contrast to global corporations such as international hotel chains.

The Caribbean tourism industry is also evolvingecotourismopportunities for visitors. Ecotourism encourages tourists to make a minimal impact on the natural environment. Ecotourism encourages travel to natural destinations such as coral reefs rather than developed destinations such asCasinos.

The multicultural history of North America is another defining feature of the continent's human geography.immigrantThey've been looking for opportunities for hundreds of years, mostly in the United States and Canada. Immigrants from Europe, Asia, Africa and South America contributed to the development of the continent. Immigrants or the children of immigrants in North America have become scientific, business, and cultural leaders.

The strong presence of immigrants is reflected in the current ethnic identityneighborhoods: the Cuban "Little Havana" in Miami, Florida, USA; the Somali "Little Mogadishu" in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA; the Korean "Koreatown" in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and the North African "Little Maghreb" in Montreal, Quebec, Canada are just a few examples. Mexico City's "Barrio Chino" is one of the smallest Chinatowns in the world, just two blocks long. However, Barrio Chino has 3,000 families of Chinese descent within its borders.

many immigrants arerefugees. According to the United Nations, a refugee is a person who is out of fear of being outside their country of citizenshiphunted. Refugees may fear economic hardship or political or social pressures. Refugees can also immigrate because of anatural disaster.

The large refugee populations in Canada include residents who are fleeingcivil warbut Sri Lanka,political oppressionin Pakistan and violence in Colombia. The large refugee populations in the United States include residents who are fleeingPovertyin Ethiopia, political repression in Vietnam and Cuba andearthquakeno Haiti.

Since 2006, Ottawa, Canada has hosted World Refugee Week, showcasing the work of artists, scholars and activists from around the world. This celebration ofdiversityEchoes in the many ethnic and cultural celebrations that take place across North America.

political geography

The history and development of North America has been shaped by its political geography. Political geography is the internal and external relationships between their various governments, citizens, and territories.

historical problems
Widespread contact between the indigenous peoples of North America and European explorers was a turning point for the continent's political geography. Italian explorer Christopher Columbus' first landing on Caribbean soil in 1492 launched the voyages of other Europeans: Spanish explorers Hernando De Soto and Ponce de Leoón; French explorer Jacques Cartier; and British explorers Sebastian Cabot and Henry Hudson.

(Video) North America Human Geography Part 1

The voyages of these explorers inspired claims and claims from several European countriessettleNorth American soil. European settlers found various ways of working with and against the indigenous communities of North America.

Settlers in what is now the United States pushed the native population west. Many indigenous communities were wiped out by disease, war and forced displacement. The large indigenous territories were isolatedreservations.

Colonists in modern-day Canada established a reservation system that protected many Indigenous settlements but isolated them from development. Intermarriage between Europeans and locals created a Franco-Indian community known today asMetis.

In Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, native populations became more integrated into political and social systems.mestizo, of European and indigenous descent, have made great contributions to the social structure and culture of Latin America.

Cooperation and conflict have dramatically affected relations between North American countries. The United States and Canada have the largestnot militarizedborder of the world, for example. This peaceful border reflects a stable and cooperative relationship between the two countries.

However, the history of North America is riddled with conflicts. The Mexican–American War (1846–1848) resulted in the United States acquiring 1,294,994 square kilometers (500,000 sq mi) of Mexican territory stretching from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Coast.

Conflicts have also created tensions between residents of the same country. The Seven Years' War (1756-1763) resulted in the cession of all French territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain. This drastically changed Canada's political geography and created divisions between French Canadians and Commonwealth Canadians. This division still influences Canadian politics.

North American countries also suffered from civil wars. Civil wars in Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador between the 1970s and 1990s killed tens of thousandsciviland urged many others to immigrate to Mexico, the United States, and Canada. The region has also become a hotspot forforeign policyand financial support. The United States, for example, tried to protect its economic and political interests by supporting various military and political governments.GuerillaThe group.

contemporary themes
Today, the political geography of North America is profoundly influenced by economic anddemographictendencies. Two key policies — the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, signed in 1994 and ended in 2020) and the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR, signed in 2004) — have affected trade between countries across the continent. Even more clearly, the agreements are reduced oreliminatedduties andRecipe. A duty is a kindTaxFees for items purchased outside of the country. A duty is another type of tax levied on imports and exports.

Both policies eliminated taxes on US and Canadian agricultural exports such as corn, wheat and soybeans. The agreements also reduced tariffs on products such as coffee, sugar, fruit and vegetables. These are important exports for the rest of the continent.

While the agreements facilitated trade between North American countries and regions, they also created major political and economic problems. Corn imports to Mexico have impoverished many Mexican farmers who cannot compete with the lower prices in the US or Canada.

NAFTA is also believed to have pushed many industries out of the US and into cheaper countries.labor marketsMexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Businesses find it cheaper to manufacture goods in these locations for a number of reasons. Wages are lower and there is less health and safetyregulations. Because there are generally fewer restrictions on child labor and fewer educational opportunities, many companies are finding many more workers. These cheaper labor markets reduce US strength.manufacturing sector.

Immigration is perhaps the most delicate aspect of North America's political geography. Much of immigration is driven by poverty. people from North America

Low- and middle-income countries

(Video) The Human Geography of North America

(LMICs), like Haiti, often migrate to the mainland

high-income countries

(HICs), like the United States.

Immigration can be a long and difficult process. It is about more than just physical migration from one nation to another. The governments of both countries must agree to the migration. Immigrants often have to learn a new language and culture, including how to dress, eat and socialize. Immigrants who want to become citizens must also take courses to prove their loyalty to their new country. Immigrants often depend on luck: In the United States and Canada (random) lottery systems often determine which immigrants can legally immigrate.

As a result of these difficulties, many poor immigrants from Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America have illegally settled in HICs. Illegal immigrants migrate for the same reasons as legal immigrants - to seek better economic and political opportunities.

Critics of illegal immigration say these immigrants are more likely to commit a crime and consumecommon goodprograms such as B. those that help fund education and health care. Critics say these immigrants are not contributing to society by paying taxes that fund these public programs.

future problems
AfterTerroristAfter the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States and throughout North America became increasingly concerned about security. National security at the international, regional and domestic levels will continue to be an important issue. Internationally, North American HICs, particularly the United States, continue to negotiate theirsdiplomaticPresence in the world while claiming to protect themselves from terrorist attacks at home.

drug traffickingit has become more regionally pronounced, particularly along the Panama-Colombia border and the US-Mexico border. This trade has been linked to the extreme violence currently sweeping northern Mexico, straining political relations between Mexico and the United States.

One of the most important aspects of North America's political and financial future lies in large part in its efforts to minimize the impact of climate changeof climate change.

The regulation or reduction ofcarbon emissionsis perhaps the most important part of the reductionthe global warmingand minimize the impact of climate change. As part of the 2009 international agreement known as the Copenhagen Accord, some North American countries have agreed to reduce emissions. The United States, one of the world's largest producers of emissions, has agreed to a reductiongreenhouse gasEmissions 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. Costa Rica has committedcarbon neutralbis 2021.

Fast fact

population density
The continent contains 57 people per square kilometer (22 people per square mile).

Fast fact

highest elevation
Denali, Alaska, USA (6,190 meters/20,310 feet)

(Video) North America Geographic Regions - 8 Regions Footage - Lesson Plan Included

Fast fact

More electricity produced from renewable energies
Belize (96.7%; hydro, biomass)

Fast fact

largest urban area
23.7 million people live in the New York City, New York, USA metropolitan area.

Fast fact

Biggest watershed
The Mississippi has an area of ​​three million square kilometers (1.15 million sq mi).


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